Monday, 25 July 2016

Brahmi Inscription-Tamil Nadu-தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வெட்டுகள்




                                                  ஆதிபகவன்

          அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம் ஆதி
         பகவன் முதற்றே உலகு

                                  தமிழி:
இந்தியாவின் வடபகுதியில அசோகன்  கல்வெட்டுக்கள் அனைத்திலும் இருவிதமான எழுத்துக்கள் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ளன.  
அவை பொதுவாக “தம்மலிபி” என்று பெயர் கூறப்படுகிறது. இருப்பினும் இவை பிராமி மற்றும் கரோஷ்டி வரிவடிவங்களில் எழுதப்பட்டுள்ளன.


  1. இடமிருந்து வலமாக எழுதும் எழுத்துமுறை பிராமி  என்றும்,
  2. வலமிருந்து இடமாக எழுதும் எழுத்து முறை கரோஷ்என்றும்
சமாவயங்க சுத்த, பண்ணவாந சுத்த போன்ற சமண நூல்களும், லலிதவிஸ்தரா (64) என்ற பௌத்த நூலும் தெரிவிக்கின்றன. இவற்றுள் காலத்தால் முற்பட்டது சமண நூலே ஆகும்.
இது பொ.ஆ.மு. முதலாம் நூற்றாண்டைச் சேர்ந்தது. இவைகள் குறிப்பிடும் எழுத்து வகைகளுள் பிராமி, கரோஷ்டி போன்றவை இடம்பெறுவது போல் “தாமிலி” என்பதும் குறிப்பிடப்பெற்றுள்ளது. 
 எனவே பிராமி என்ற பெயர் வழங்கப் பெற்ற அதே கால கட்டத்திலேயே “தமிழி” என்ற பெயரும் வழக்கில் இருந்துள்ளது இங்குச் சுட்டத்தக்கது.
கரோஷ்டியும், பிராம்மியும் வேறு இரு எழுத்துக்களாகும்.

அசோகர் காலத்திற்கு முற்பட்டதாகக் கருதத்தக்க அளவில் பட்டிபுரோலுவில் (ஆந்திரா, கிருஷ்ணா மாவட்டம்) கிடைத்த எழுத்திற்கும் தமிழகத்தில் உள்ள எழுத்திற்கும் சில வேறுபாடுகள் இருப்பினும் அவைகளுக்கிடையில் பலவகையில் ஒற்றுமைகள் உள்ளன. 
சமண நூலில் காணப்படுவது போல “தமிழி” என்ற பெயர் தான் சரியானது என Thiru. நாகசாமி குறிப்பிடுகின்றார்.
தமிழி எழுத்து வடிவங்களைக்
கீழே இடம் பெற்றுள்ள படத்தில் காணலாம்.



sources Tamil Virtual University: courtesy to:

http://www.tamilvu.org/courses/degree/a051/a0514/html/a051414.htm


தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வெட்டுகள்


    ‘Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions are the only record of old Tamil’


Dr.  Iravatham Mahadevan:

"It is a tragedy that cave inscriptions are being vandalised."




IRAVATHAM MAHADEVAN,   an administrator-turned-scholar, has done acclaimed work on the Tamil-Brahmi and Indus scripts. HisEarly Tamil Epigraphy (From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D.), which was published in 2003, is the fruit of 40 years of dedicated work on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. His earlier work Corpus of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions created a wave of exploration for Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. Mahadevan received the Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship in 1970 for research on the Indus script and was awarded the National Fellowship of the Indian Council of Historical Research in 1992 for his work on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. He has also authored The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables. He received the Padma Shri this year. Excerpts from an interview Mahadevan gave Frontline on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and their place in history









video



Tamil-Brahmi Script are first written form of Tamil. Tamil Language had well define grammar even 2500 years ago (Tholkapium)



      Click here to know more about no. of Brahmi inscription and the places.
please visit the link below:  http/www:   Tn Archelogy about brahmi scripts


In Tamil Nadu there are  31 places 93 brahmi Inscription were found so far.

Kongumandalam (Chera nadu)  5 places (Edakkal, Pukaloor, Iyer malai, Arachaloor, Ammankoil patti.
Chola mandalam Truchiopoly alone.
Thondamandalam                  4 places ie Doosi Mamandoor, Thondur, Naganurpatti, Jambai
Pandiayamandalam               21  in   Madurai, Thirunelveli and Pudukottai ie Sithannavasal  

1.  மாங்குளம் –                               மதுரை
2.  அரிட்டாபட்டி  –                        மதுரை
3.  திருவாதவூர் -                            மதுரை
4.  கீழவளவு        -                             மதுரை  
5.  கொங்கர்புளியங்குளம்-    மதுரை 
6.  மருகால்தலை    –                     திருநெல்வேலி 
7.  வரிச்சியூர்-                                  மதுரை
8.  விக்கிரமங்கலம் -                   மதுரை
9.  மேட்டுப்பட்டி   –                         மதுரை 
10. கருங்காலக்குடி –                    மதுரை
11. முதலைகுளம்    -                      மதுரை
12. அழகர்மலை      –                      மதுரை
13. சித்தன்னவாசல்    -                புதுக்கோட்டை
14. ஐயர்மலை             -                    கரூர்
15. திருமலை            –                      சிவகங்கை
16. திருப்பரங்குன்றம்-                 மதுரை
17. முத்துப்பட்டி  -                            மதுரை
18. ஜம்பை     -                                    விழுப்புரம்
19. ஆனைமலை   -                         மதுரை
20. புகளூர்.          -                             கரூர்
21. மாமண்டூர்       –                       திருவண்ணாமலை
22. குன்னக்குடி       -                       சிவகங்கை
23. தொண்டூர்     –                          திருவண்ணாமலை
24. குடுமியான்மலை-                புதுக்கோட்டை
25. திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி-              திருச்சி
26. இடக்கால்-                                   கேரளா ஸ்டேட 
27. நெகனூர்பட்டி-                         திருவண்ணாமலை
28. அம்மன் கோவில்பட்டி–     சேலம்
29. அரச்சலூர்       -                           ஈரோடு
30. மன்னார்கோயில்–                 திருநெல்வேலி
31. சமணர்மலை    –                      மதுரை




1.  Mangulam or Meenashipuram -Ovamalai or Kazhugumalai.

Madurai to Meloor (N.H ) 25 KM Kanthappatti village.   At the top of Ovamalai 5 natural caves 52 beds .approximately 2200 years beforeJain monks under the head of Kani Nandhan Jain Acharya  (saints) were stayed here





tamiljains.org







Mangulam Brahmi kalvettukal 6




The Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department excavated the ruins of the prayer halls in 2007. The excavation yielded large-sized bricks, grooved tiles with holes, black and red potsherds and L-shaped iron nails. The Department has published a book on this excavation.
V. Vedachalam, retired senior epigraphist, Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department, estimated that these halls were “the earliest Jaina brick structures in Tamil Nadu.” He asserted, “No brick structure of this kind has been found in any Jaina site in Tamil Nadu.” The monks, who lived in the nearby caves, must have prayed in these chaitya grahas, which could have had an auspicious symbol or a cult object, he said.
The foundation and walls of the halls were built of bricks, which measured 35 cm x 17 cm x 6 cm. The roof was made of wooden rafters with grooved tiles that were held in place on the rafters by the L-shaped iron nails driven through the tiles.
These structures were similar to those found at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri hills, near Bhubaneswar, Orissa, which were important Jaina centres, said Dr. Vedachalam.
In 1882, Robert Sewell, civil servant and antiquarian, first noticed a few inscriptions on the brow of the caves on the Mankulam hill, near Meenakshipuram. Epigraphists V. Venkayya and H. Krishna Sastry tried to read them. Attempts to decipher them bore no fruit until K.V. Subrahmanya Aiyer, who pioneered the reading of the Tamil-Brahmi script, recognised them as having been inscribed in Brahmi. He concluded, in 1924, that the script’s language was Tamil. Others who contributed to the decipherment of the Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions found in Tamil Nadu included T.N. Subrahmanian, Iravatham Mahadevan, Dr. R. Nagaswamy and Dr. Y. Subbarayalu.
On the Mankulam hill, there are five caves, with six Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions in four of them. They belong to the 2nd century B.C. The long inscription found on the brow of the rock, close to the first Jaina prayer hall, gives details of how the Pandya king Nedunchezhiyan was instrumental in sculpting the beds in the cave as “dhammam” for the chief Jaina monk “Kani Nandan.” Another inscription is about “Sadikan,” father of Nedunchezhiyan’s brother-in-law, sculpting the beds for Kani Nandan.
Dr. Vedachalam said: “Mankulam was a great Jaina centre. It must have been the largest Jaina centre in Tamil Nadu during the Sangam age. The existence of the chaitya grahas, Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and the Jaina beds [together in one place] are of national importance.”
Today, the Jaina beds have been desecrated with graffiti incised on them or painted in different colours.
                               






In four cavern 6 Brahmi  inscriptions.                    Period:   2nd BCE 
கல்வெட்டுச்செய்திகள்:
நந்த(கணம்) ஸிரியக்குவன் என்ற சமண  சங்கத்தை சார்ந்த முனிவனுக்கு பாண்டியநெடுஞ்செழியன்  தர்மமாகப் பள்ளி அமைத்துக்கொடுத்தா ன், பட்டப்பெயர்களாகவே , பண அன்,கடல் அன், வழுத்திய் என்ற பெயர்கள் இக்கல்வெட்டில் வருகின்றன.
Nanda (kanam) Shrikuvan ( jain acharya) ,  Pandiya king Nedunchezhiyan  donated cave beds, engraved as Brahmiinscriptions.

This was found in 1906 research and read in 1963
By- Shri. R.Nagasamy, I.Mahadevan, Mailai.Seeni venkatasamy

தமிழ் நாடு  அரசு தொல்லியல் துரை மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன.
                                                    
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2. Arittaapatti - MADURAI

North of Aanaimalai about 17 km Northeast (Madurai) to Melur Thiruppinayan Malai, known as Kazhinjamalai



tamiljains.org






There are 2  Brahmi inscriptions one in upper portion and and another in lower portion of the water drain portion.                                                Period:  2 nd century BCE

Both these inscriptions mention Nelveli, and Elanchi belong south panda’s uoorkal. The caves made by the pandiya kings to Jain monks.

Jain thiruthankar tatue are on the top of the hill there also vattezhu  inscription 
Achanandhi sculptured the statue. This hill is called pinaiyan malai mentioned here.
This was found by Prof:  K.V. Ramanujam and Prof: A. Subbarayalu in 1971 and was published 1978-79 Indian Government Annual report no: 264.
  மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப்பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன

From Periyar bus stand - 75, 716, 717,718 and 771(Arittapatti)Melur.



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3.  Thiruvathavoor. Meloor taluk (Madurai)

    (from 20 KM distance)  Backside of the village a hill called Uvaa malai







Dr. Iravatham Mahadevan Reading Brahmi inscription


  There are 2 Brahmi inscriptions.                           Period:       2nd BCE.
 3.1  பாங்காட அர் இதன் கொட்டுபிதோன்
  3.2  உபசன் பர் அசு  உறை கொட்டுபிதோன்
This was found in 1996 by  Shir.  I. Mahadevan and it was published in Annual report 1965-66.
Upasan mean Upaththiyayan( samya  achriyanukku) cave beds were made engraved as brahmi inscriptions.
தமிழ் நாடு  அரசு தொல்லியல் துரை மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்ற


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4.  Keezhavalavu: 45 Km North of (Madurai)

 13 km Melur Thirupattur Highway Hill is called panchapandavar malai or palli.


www:tamiljains.org



4.1     உப[]அன் தொண்டி[]வோன்கொடு பளி 


     According to Dr. V. Vedhachalam, it is one of the beautiful Jain temples of Pandya kingdom. The smooth rock beds were constructed in such a way that it prevents rainwater from entering the cave. Among the 9 Tiruthankar structures seen here, 2 are in standing posture. Paintings Dating back to 9th and 10th century are found over these figures.
               
Many cave beds &  one  Brahmi   inscription                  Period :  2nd century BCE

    
உபசன் "சமய ஆசிரியர்" சமண பள்ளிகளில்     இவ்விடம் தொடர்ந்து சமண பள்ளியாக இருந்திருக்கிறது.Upachchayaa  from  Pali language.
ASI- மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன

Buses traveling to Thiruppathur and Karaikudi.        






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5.  Konkarpuliyankulam (Madurai)

 Kambam road 15 KM taking the right cut before Chekkanooruni one can reach K. Puliangulam.
                                                 
Jain sculptures are seen in six natural caves located on a hillock known as Pancha Pandavar hillock in Nagamalai ranges in the North Western part of K. Puliangulam.

A bas-relief figure of Tiruthankar is seen on the outer wall of the cave. An ancient Inscription seen at the bottom of the Tiruthankar  figure indicates that a Jain named Achanandhi' had sculpted this figure.

tamiljains.org
















Long polished  50  rock cave beds. 3 Brahmi inscriptions are found in front of the cave.
 period 2nd century BCE


























5.1 குறகொடுபிதவன் உபச அன் உபறுவ[ன்]
5.2 குறகொடல்கு ஈத்தவன் செற் அதன்[]ன்
5.3 பாகன் ஊர் பே[] தன்பிடன் இத்த வெபோன்

 பாகனூர் கூற்றம் பாண்டியன் வெண்பொன்  வழங்கிய என பொருள் கொள்ள லாம்
Bakanur Koon Pandian donated cave beds and gold kazhanchi.

This was found in 1910 published in Annual report.

 தமிழ் நாடு  அரசு தொல்லியல் துரை  மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன

Periyar bus stand - 40,40 K (K. Puliangulam), 21H, 55,61 and 65



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6.  Marukalthalai -Thirunelveli.

 South east of Palyamkottai at a distance of 9 KM Seevalaperi village near Marukalthalai village.one of the hills called Pooviludaiyar  hills west side Panchpandavar padukkai a natural caves (caviron) here  for Jain monks  cave beds were donated  in the hills top bold letters











 

In 40 cm height a Brahmi inscription  is there.                  Period 2nd centuary.
6.1 வெண்காஸிபன் கொடு பித கல்கஞ்சனம்

Kanchanam  means in sanscrit a model  type of temple.
This was first found by Nellai collector Heamaide in 1906.
தமிழ் நாடு  அரசு தொல்லியல் துரை

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7.  Varichiyur. (Madurai)

South Sivaganga road. Subramaniya hills also called Udaygiri
There are 3 Brahmi inscriptions              Period 2nd  BCE













This was taken copy in 1908 and it was published in Annual report
               


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8.  Vikramangalam.- Madurai.

 Usilampatti taluk  west of (Madurai   Small hill called Undakkal



There  are 6 Brahmi inscriptions                               Period 2nd BCE





குவிர தான என்று வசித்து அவன் தானம் என்று திரு. மகாதெவன் பொருள் கொள்கிறார்
This was found in 1923, 1926, 1978.

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9.  Mettupatti. -MADURAI

In Peranai area  40 KM from west of  Madurai. Southern bank of Vaigai river Siddhar malai  hill is here.  Madurai to Usilampatti
 
On the top of the hill on way to Mahalinga swamy temple panchapandavar kukai (caves) natural cavern with caves beds are here.



In this caves top and cave beds 10 brahmi inscriptions found.           Period 2nd BCE..





9.1  அமணன் மதிரை அத்திரன் உறை உதயனஸ
9.2  அந்தை அரிய்தி
9.3  அந்தை இராவதன்
9.4  []திர அந்தை[விஸுவன்
9.5  அந்தை சேந்தன் அதன்
9.6  சந்தந்தை சந்தன்
9.7  பதின்[ஊர்அதை
9.8  குவிர [ந்தைசேய் அதன்
9.9  குவிரந்தை வேன் அதன்
9.10  திடி இல் அதன்

சமண சமயத்தில் உயர்கதி அடைந்தவர்கள் சித்தர்கள் அதனால் அவர்கள் வாழ்ந்த மலைகளைச் சித்தர் மலை என்று அழைக்கும் வழக்கம் இருந்துள்ளது. பத்து கல்வெட்டில் முதலாவது கல்வெட்டில் சிரமணர் என்ற சொல் மொழி முதல் சகரம் நீக்கப்பட்டு அமணன் என்று குறிப்பிட்டப்படுகிறது.

Jain sithar ( those who attained the salvations)
Inscriptions  found out in 1908, 1980.


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10.  Karunkalakkudi -MADURAI

Melloor to Trichy  high ways  a small hills called  panchapandavar kunddu
cave beds   for Jain monks  and brahmi inscriptions and Jain Tiruthankar statue are carved and stone rock paintings were also  here.                                        Period 2nd BCE.





10.1  எழைய் ஊர் அரிதின் பளி

This was found in 1912 and published in Annual report with pictures.

TN-S(ASI) மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன
http://stream1.tamilvu.in/culgal/html/cg100/cg101/images/cg101v007.htm

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11.  Mudalai kulam - MADURAI

Usilampatti taluk west of (Madurai)  near Vikramangalam 

Mudalai kulam is situated. Vikramangalam brahmi kalvettu (undakkal hills) near small Undankal hills Erakkipudavu caves edge 



A𑀯𑁂𑀫𑁆𑀧𑀺𑀶𑁆 𑀊𑀭𑁆 𑀧𑁂𑀭𑁆 𑀅𑀬𑁆 𑀅𑀫𑁆 𑀘𑁂𑀢𑀯𑀭𑁆
These brahmi inscriptions 164 cm lengths.                Period 2nd BCE

11.1  வேம்பிற் ஊர் பேர் அய் அம் சேதவர்

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12.  Azhakar Malai - MADURAI

 Located 20 km North of (Madurai at Uppadaipatti situated between Kidarippatti and Sundararajanpatti on Melur road.

A  cave has well-polished floor and stone beds. There is a perennial spring flowing near the stone beds.  Ancient inscriptions seen here indicate that this cave had transformed into a Jain temple.

The inscription seen at the bottom of Tiruthankar rock sculpture discloses
Jain Monk Achanandi had sculpted it during 10th century A.D.


tamiljains,org











There are 12 brahmi inscriptions                             Period 2nd BCE.




இக்கல்வெட்டுகல் அனைத்திலும் சொல்லப்படுபவர்கள் குகைத்தள்ம், முகப்பு நீர்வடி விளிம்பு, சுனை என இங்கு  அனைத்தையும் செய்துகொடுத்துள்ளனர் என்று கருதலாம்.

cave beds, water drains and water spring all were donated to jain acharya. engraved as tamil brami inscriptions.


On the face of the cave, we were shown the inscription "Mathirai Pon Kollan Adan Adan", which denotes the name of a goldsmith from Madurai, Adan Adan. The next cave had an inscription "Mathiraikey upa Vanikan Viyakkan Kaanathikan", about a salt merchant named Viyakkan who hails from Madurai. There were more inscriptions bearing the names of a camphor and sugar merchant, Nedumallan, and an iron merchant, Santhan, who sold agrarian tools.


This was found in 1908, 1963 and published and 1966 copied published in Annual report.

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 From Periyar bus stand - 844, 845, 42K
 Melur and Vadippatti.
 Mini bus service is also available.

http://stream1.tamilvu.in/culgal/html/cg100/cg101/images/cg101v001.htm
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13.  Siththannavasal  - PUDUKOTTAI.

The famous paintings of Sittannavasal are in Iluppur taluk (Pudukottai Dist).

tamiljains.org





The eastern side of the hill cavern called Ezhadipattam with polished 17 cave beds
 Jain palli for Jain monks.

A brahmi inscriptions in upper side and and side wise             period 1st BCE.




காவுடி' என்ற் சொல் சமண மதத்தில் இருந்த பெண்பாற் துறவியை குறிக்கிறது, சமண மதத்தில் அவ்வளவு பண்டைக்காலத்திலேயே பெண்குரத்தியர் இருந்ததற்காண முதற் சான்றாக இது அமைகிறது.

In Jain kawundhi woman saints were there mentioned as Brahmi inscriptions here.

In the year 1914 central Archaeological dept. published in Annual report. With pictures.
               
1914 Krishna sastri, then 1924  shir. K.V. Subramaniya Iyyer then in 1972 Shri.R.Panneer selvam  
read this inscriptions  and finalized the content.
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14.  Iyer Malai- KARUR.

 In Kulithalai taluk (Karur Dist.) Sathyamangalam Area  small village called Iyer Malai. Here Rathnapuriswarar Malai on the top of the hill natural cavrion cave beds
Brahmi  inscriptions 1st BCE.



14.1  பனை துறை வெஸன் அதட் அனம்

(வெஸன்) சமண சமயம் பெரிதும் வணிகர்களால் ஆதிரிக்கப்பட்டதைன்கருத் தில் கொண்டு வனிகன்  என்ற பொருளையே ஏற்கலாம்.
                                                                                                                  
Central Archaeological annual report 1973-74 published.
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15.  Thirumalai- SIVAGANGAI

Thirumalai is  in Sivaganga taluk (Sivagangai dist.)

Cave temple on top of the hill Thol mandar paintings and
two brahmi inscriptions are there                period  1st century BCE.










 15. 1  ..  கரண்டை
15. 2   எருகாடு ஊரு காவிதி கோன் கொறிய பளிய்


காவிதி பட்டம்பெற்ற தலைவன் பள்ளி அமைத்தான்

Madurai Division Archaeological found in 1977-78 and it was was publishedquarterly ithzh no 24 and Epigraphy Indiga no 42.
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16.  Thirupparankundram-Madurai

Jain temple at Parankundru. is located 8 Km  from Madurai on NH 7.

Traces of 3 Jain temples are found in this hill. Jainism prospered here between 2nd century B.C and 13th century A.D. One of the temples is situated near a spring located behind Palaniandavar temple at the entrance to hilltop.

The next one is present near Kasivishwanathar temple at the hilltop

The third temple is situated near Umaiandavar temple at the foot of hill in its southern part.
These three temples are considered to belong to 8th century B.C.

All these temples have Thiruthankar structures. As there are twisted branches of Asoka tree over the head of Arthanaareswarar sculpture found in this mandapam (Hall) A 13th century A.D. inscription belonging to Sundara Pandyan is seen here.

 There are 4 brahmi inscriptions.                  Period      1st BCE







16.1.  அந்துவன் கொடுபிதவன     
16.2  மாரயது கய[ம்]

16.3  எரு காடுர் இழ குடும்பிகள் போலாலயன் செய்தா ஆய்சயன் நெடுசாதன்

This inscriptions news published   Indian epigraphy  annual report 1951-52 no: 140-142 and 1908  no 333 published .

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Frequent bus service is available from in and around Madurai.
Periyar bus stand - 5, 14, 22, 48, 49, 52
Arappalayam - 48
Thirumangalam -5, 14, 22, 48 and 49.




17.  Muthhuppatti - MADURAI

Perumal hill is situated as a continuation of Samanarmalai (Jain hill) at Karadippatti in Nagamalai range about 12 km from (Madurai).
                220 Meter hight Kardipatti(perumal malai) The 2 natural caves seen here have number of stone beds in them. One of the Jain temples has arrangement for preventing rain from entering the cave, no such arrangement is seen in the other cave.
                                                                 
As ancient inscription  are seen here it can considered that Jain's first
settled at Perumal hill later they spread their habitat to Samanarmalai (Jain hills). 9thcenturyTheerthangarar structure along with Iyakki figure is seen inside the cave. Two theerthangarar figures are seen inside separate structures (madam) outside the cave. There are carvings at the bottom of these figures indicating who had sculpted them.











3 Brahmi inscriptions in south of the Karadipatti Malai                          ,Period 1st BCE

17.1  நாகபேரூதைய் முசிறி  கோடன் எளமகன்
17.2  சைய் அளன் விந்தைஊர் கவிய்
17.3 திடிக் காத்தான்..[]னம் எய்.
This was found first in the year of 1930.

Bus service
From Periyar bus stand - 21 S (Karadippatti), 21, 40, 55, 61 and 65
Thirumangalam - 4A 

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18.  Jambai VILLUPURAM

 is near Thirukoviloor(river Thenpennai north bank) (Villuppuram Dist).

Natural caviron  inAaluritti malai called Thasimadam by local people. Backside the hill
brahmi inscription are there.                                            Period 1st BCE

This is very important inscriptions found in recent times. This talks about the times  Athiyaman  Neduman Anji.






18.1  ஸதியபுதோ அதியந் நெடுமாந் அஞ்சி ஈத்தபள்ள


 In 1987 Tamil Nadu Archaeological department student K. Selvaraj found and review  by then Director. R. Nagasamy and published in English and Tamil in News paper
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19.  Aanamalai.-MADURAI

(Iva Kundram iva – Elephant - meaning elephant hills) Madurai.
Aanaimalai hill about 8 km Northeast of Madurai on the way to Melur highways 3 km from here Oththakadai village eastern side Narasingam Madurai (like an elephant is sleeping)

It is believed that this temple was formed during first A.D. There are many rock beds   and inscriptions found here. The sculptures found here are Jain Tiruthankarr statues and Iyakki(female monk) structures in standing posture.
 The painting of lotus flower and lamp seen the side of the Theerthangarar structure are still in good
 condition.









இவகுன்றது உறையுள் பாதந்தன் ஏரி அரிதன் அத்துவாயி அர்ட்டகாயிபன்'

 19.1 

இவகுன்ற்ம் என்னும் இம்மலையில் ஏரிஅரிதன், அத்துவாயி அரட்டகாயிபன் என்னும் இரு துறவியர் தங்குவதற்கான கற்படுக்கை என்பது இதன் பொருள்.

evakundrathu uraiul panthan eeri Arithan aththuvayi Arttakayipan  - cave beds for the two jain monks.


In the year 1906  Shri. K.V Subramaniya Iyyer  found this inscripitons

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From Periyar bus stand - 75, 716, 717,718 and 771
Melur
Mini bus service is also available. ===========================================================

20. Pukalloor.-Karoor

to Salem highways 15 KM distance  on the bank of Cavery river
 Pukaloor is situated Here Aarunattarar malai  top of the hill  Arunagiri nathar padapatta Pakzhiyoor Murugan temples is there. On the southern side natural caviron and cave beds are there.
 In the cave beds 12 brahmi inscriptions are there.                                  Period 2nd BCE.









 செங்காயபன் என்ற மூத்த சமணத்துறவிக்கான உறைவிடம் அரசன் செல்லிரும் பொறையின் மகன் இளங்கடுங்கொ அமைத்து கொடுக்கப்பட்டது

புகளுர் கல்வெட்டுகள் வரலற்று முக்கியதுவம் பெற்றவை அதிக அளவில் தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வெட்டுகல் உள்ள இடங்களில் ஒன்ரு புகளூர்.
சேர மன்னர்களின் மூன்று தலைமுறையினர் இங்கு சொல்லப்படுகின்ரனர்

In 1927-28 found and 1955 shri.  Iravatham Mahadevan clearly read and published.

TN-S(ASI)மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன
 http://www.tamilheritage.org/old/monument/oodu/mahadev.html

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21. Mamandoor (Thiruvannamalai)  

Kanchpuram to Vandavasi road 12 Km from Kanchipuram 
near doosi village Mamndoor village is here Mahendravarman's Kudavarai koil is suituted. Small hill is lying in big lake
 at the entrance of the hill there is  a Tamil brahmi inscription are there.  Period 3rd Centuray.





here natural cavirn and caves there 4 line inscriptions are there.

21.1




kanaiman  mean karraithavan or sothidan(Astrologer).

This was found in 1939-40 and published in Annual report.    ===========================================================

22.  Kunnakkudi.(Sivakanga dist.) 

Thiruppaththur to Karaikudi road Kunnakkudi is suituated.
 In this hill western   of upper side caviron called  Samiyar madam .
There  2 brahmi inscriptions are there:                                      period 3rd Centuary.













  22.1: காபிஊர் ஆதன் சாத்தன்
  22.2: ஊறு து..


காப்பியம் என்பது ஒரு குடிப்பெயராக இருக்கவேண்டும், தொல்காப்பியர், காப்பியன் சேந்தனார் முதலிய புலவர்களது பெயர்கள் கருத்தில் கொல்லவேண்டும்

This was found in 1909 and 1992 Iravatham Mahadevan alon with Tamil  Nadu archaeological  department  read and published .
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23.  Thondur- TIRUVANNAMALAI

23 KM from south of Gingee (Vilupuram Dist.)

Panchanarpadi hills south of this hill natural caviron and caves  and three cave beds and  brahmi inscriptions are there                                                               period 3rd  centuary




           1  [] ள்ங்காயிபன் ஏவ அகழ் ஊரறம் மோசி செய்த அதிடானம்

       







அகழூர் என்பது இன்று தொண்டூர் அருகில் உள்ளது இளங்காயிபன் பணிக்க அறம் செய்துள்ளனர்
 
In the year 1991 Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department Shri. M. Sathya Moorthy found and published in 20.1.1991 Dinamani News paper,
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24.  Kudumiyan Malai - PUDUKOTTAI

This hill is 16 KM from (Pudukotai).

This cave temple contains famous music inscriptions belongs to 7 th century.
In this south west side rocks slops  natural cavern  and
cave beds  and a brahmi inscription                                Period 3rd BCE are there.

நாழள் கொற்றைந்தய் ப்[ளி]ய்
          






கொற்றந்தை மரியாதைகுரியவரக இங்கு கட்டப்பட்டுள்ளது.


 In the year of 1991 Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department Mr. P. Rajendran, Mr. 25. 
 S. Santhalingam  found this and review by Dr. Iravatham Mahdevan and published this.
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   25.  Thiruchirapalli -Trichy  

                Malikottai hills west side natural caviron are there here
 one  brahmi inscription.                                period 3 rd centuary









  25: 1. .. பன் கே
  25: 1. .. 𑀧𑀷𑁆 𑀓𑁂
என்பது அறியக்கிடைக்கும் எழுத்துகளாகும்

 This read from Dr. Iravatham Mahadevan  books..

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  26. Edakkal. Kerala state Malabar region (Wayanad dist.)

Ganapathy taluk is here.
South east  of 6 km from sultan baththery 4000 feet hight edakkal hills top natural caviron  and there are four brahmi inscriptions are there.                                         Period 3rd Centuary.



இங்கு சேர அரசர்கள், தலைவர்கள்,வீரர் பெயர்கள் இருப்பதும்
Latter stage sultan arms factory were established.

 In ther year of 1894 found and reviewed in 1897. In the year of 1996 again reaseach and review by Dr. Iravatham Mahayana .
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27.   Neganoorpatti. Gingee taluk, (Thruvannamali dist.)

 Here adukkan kal natural caviron and
brahmi inscriptions  are there.              Period 4 th centuary.









  27: 1
     1. பெரும் பொகழ்
     2. சேக்கத்தி தாயியரு
சேக்கந்தண்ணி செ
.யி வித்த பள்ளி


சேக்கந் அண்ணி இவரை சமண பெண் துறவியாகக் கொள்ளலாம்
இக்கல்வெட்டில் சொல்லப்படும் பெரும்பொகல் இன்றைய 'பெரும்புகை' யாக இருக்கலாம்.

In the year 1992 Indian Archaeological Department Shri. S. Rajavelu found  and published.
 ===========================================================
  28. Amman koilpatti- Omalur.
This small village is  in Omalur – Taramangalam road
Periyapatti village at Omalur taluk, (Salem Dist.)

Uppar river in south bank perumal koil rock  “Teppali'”  sunai natural spring near tamil brahmi inscriptions are there in two lines.                                     period 4 th centuray





 28: 1 பரம்பன் கோகூர் கிழார் மகன் வியக்கன் கோபன் கணதெவன் தொட ச் சுனை

28: 1 𑀧𑀭𑀫𑁆𑀧𑀷𑁆 𑀓𑁄𑀓𑀽𑀭𑁆 𑀓𑀺𑀵𑀸𑀭𑁆 𑀫𑀓𑀷𑁆 𑀯𑀺𑀬𑀓𑁆𑀓𑀷𑁆 𑀓𑁄𑀧𑀷𑁆 𑀓𑀡𑀢𑁂𑁆𑀯𑀷𑁆 𑀢𑁄𑁆𑀝 𑀘𑁆 𑀘𑀼𑀷𑁃

இக்கல்வெட்டு சுனை பற்றி சொல்கிறது, சமண சார்புடையது அறம் (அல்லது) செயலை குறிக்கவில்லை, இக் கல்வெட்டை சமய சார்பற்ற கல்வெட்டக கருதவேண்டும்

In 1979 puthu. Po. Venkatraman school teacher found this.

TN-S(ASI)  மரபுச்சின்னங்களாக அறிவிக்கப்பட்டுப் பாதுகாக்கப்படுகின்றன
  ===========================================================

29.  Arachalur. This is situated in( Erode )

Kankeyam Road.  Next this village

 Nagamali – Anttiparai there is a natural caviron and cave beds are there.

In between cave beds famous music inscriptions are there.          period 4th centuary.









29: 1. எழுத்தும் புணருத்தன் மலைய் வண்ணக்கன் தேவன் சாத்தன்


29: 2.
    1.      தை   தா  தை  
    2.  தை  தா   தே   தா   தை
    3.  தா   தே   தை  தே   தா
    4.  தை  தா   தே   தா   தை
       த     தை   தா  தை 

  1.  𑀢    𑀢𑁃        𑀢
  2.      
𑀢𑁂   𑀢𑀸   𑀢𑁃
  3.   
𑀢𑀸   𑀢𑁂        𑀢𑀸
  4.      
𑀢𑁂   𑀢𑀸   𑀢𑁃
  5.    
𑀢     𑀢𑁃   𑀢𑀸  𑀢𑁃  𑀢

 இசை ஓசை எழுத்துக்கள் உயரத்திலும் அகலத்திலும் வரிசையாக ஒரு சதுரக்கட்ட அமைப்பில்  உள்ளது சிறப்பாகும்
 29 : 3
  1. கை         தை         கை
  2.      [கை]  []    [கை]  []
  3. தை         கை         [தை]
  4.      கை    []    [கை]   []
[கை] []    [கை]         [கை]

1. 𑀓𑁃   𑀢      𑀢𑁃   𑀢     𑀓𑁃
2.
𑀢     [𑀓𑁃]     [𑀢]    [𑀓𑁃]       [𑀢]
3.
𑀢𑁃   𑀢      𑀓𑁃   𑀢      [𑀢𑁃]
4.
𑀢     𑀓𑁃    [𑀢]    [𑀓𑁃]        [𑀢]
5. [
𑀓𑁃]   [𑀢]        [𑀓𑁃]   𑀢      [𑀓𑁃]

முன்னது போலவெ இசை ஓசைக் கேற்ப் உயர்த்தி லும் அகலத்திலும் வரிசையக ஒரு சதுர கட்டம் வரும் வகையில் அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன
சிலப்பதிகார உரையில் (சிலம்பு 17:13 உரை) அடியார்க்கு நல்லார் படவடிவ இசைகுரிப்புகள்(பாலை) உண்டு எண்றும் அவை வட்டப்பாலை, சதுரப்பலையாக  இருக்கலாம்.

In 1960 Pulavar Eraju found and published

  ===========================================================

30.  Mannarkoil. Ayyanarkulam-  Ambasamuthiram taluk, (Thrinelveli dist.)

South west  of Ambasamuthiram  6 km  in  Ambasamuthiram – Thenkasai road.
 Ayyanrakula Pothikai malai backside  natural hills and there are two small hills call Rajaparai
and  Nilapparai.



Here Tamil brahmi inscription are there.                                 Period 2nd centuary.



30: 1. 
       1. பள்ளி செய்வித்தான்
       2.   கடிகை[கோ] வின் மகன்
பெருங்கூற்றன்



  30: 2.
நிலாப்பறையின் மீதாக இரண்டு கற்படுக்கைகள் வெட்டப்ப்படுள்ளன
இவற்றின் தலைப்பகுதியில் 2 வரிகளில் தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வஏடுகல் உள்ளது.

1. குணாவின் ளங்கோ
2. செய்யித பளி


In the year 2002 Kurralam Parsakthi College student Manohari's information Archaeological department people  Dr. Senthil Selvakumaran and So. Santhiravanan found and published
----------------------------------------------------------

31. Samanar Malai-   Madurai.


















http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/history-and-culture/2200yearold-tamilbrahmi-inscription-found-on-samanamalai/article3220674.ecehttp://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/history-and-culture/2200yearold-tamilbrahmi-inscription-found-on-samanamalai/article3220674.ece

T.S. SUBRAMANIAN
Interview with scholar Iravatham Mahadevan.R. RAGU 
Iravatham Mahadevan: "It is a tragedy that cave inscriptions are being vandalised."
IRAVATHAM MAHADEVAN, an administrator-turned-scholar, has done acclaimed work on the Tamil-Brahmi and Indus scripts. HisEarly Tamil Epigraphy (From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D.), which was published in 2003, is the fruit of 40 years of dedicated work on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. His earlier work Corpus of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions created a wave of exploration for Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. Mahadevan received the Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship in 1970 for research on the Indus script and was awarded the National Fellowship of the Indian Council of Historical Research in 1992 for his work on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. He has also authored The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables. He received the Padma Shri this year. Excerpts from an interview Mahadevan gave Frontline on Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and their place in history:
Tamil-Brahmi sites near Madurai are facing destruction owing to granite quarrying in the hills in which they are found. The Jaina sculptures and beds situated adjacent to these are being vandalised. What is the relevance of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions in Indian history?

Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions are important not only in the history of Tamil Nadu and the rest of South India but for the whole country. They have many unique distinctions. They are the oldest writings in any Dravidian language. 
They are also the oldest Jaina inscriptions in India. I believe that the Mankulam Tamil-Brahmi inscription of [Pandyan king] Nedunchezhiyan is older than the Karavela inscription at Udayagiri in Orissa.
Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions are the only record of the old Tamil, the one prior to Sangam poetry. Many Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions are important landmarks in our history. For example, the inscriptions of Nedunchezhiyan at Mankulam, the Irumporai inscriptions at Pugalur near Karur and the Jambai inscription of Adhiyaman Neduman Anji link the Sangam age with the Tamil-Brahmi age. It is the Jambai inscription that prove that the “Satyaputo” mentioned by Asoka was none other than the Adhiyaman dynasty, which ruled from Tagadur, modern Dharmapuri.
Recently, Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions have been found on hero stones in the upper Vaigai valley near megalithic graves, thus providing a link, for the first time, between the megalithic and the early historical periods of Tamil Nadu. The Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions occurring on coins, rings, potsherds and seals add another dimension to the history of Tamil Nadu. For example, the Pandyan coin of Peruvazhuthi or the silver portrait coins of Cheras. There are also numerous gold, silver and bronze rings of merchants and noblemen from the prosperous trading town of Karur of the Sangam age. Again, recently, excavations at Pattanam in Kerala have brought to light the remains of the ancient and famous Sangam age port of Musiri, known as Muziris to the classical historians of the West. These facts demonstrate the importance of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions to our history.
It is, therefore, a great tragedy that the cave inscriptions of Tamil-Brahmi and Jaina sculptures [and beds] are being systematically vandalised by ignorant tourists and destroyed by granite quarries. It is impossible to stop quarrying because of vested interests and the money power and the muscle power at their disposal. Already, in my lifetime, many Tamil-Brahmi cave inscriptions have been lost or have been damaged severely. I understand from scholars undertaking recent field work that the destruction is now proceeding much faster. It is sad that the public are indifferent [to this], and the State government and the Central government are helpless to stop this wanton destruction of our cultural heritage. Perhaps all the Tamil-Brahmi cave inscriptions will disappear within a decade.
The only consolation I have is that a serious attempt to record whatever remains by means of video photography and digitisation has been made by the classical Tamil project authorities. In Early Tamil Epigraphy: From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., I had anticipated this disastrous development and I had pleaded for greater awareness of our cultural heritage and more purposeful steps for their conservation. What I did not expect was that the destruction would be so swift and so colossal. I can only shed tears at whatever has been lost as, frankly, I am not hopeful that whatever remains will be saved.
Do you think there has been a dereliction of duty on the part of the Archaeological Survey of India and the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department?

I do not think that the ASI or the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department has been effective in preventing the vandalism and destruction. I think that part of the problem is that the ASI and the Archaeology Department are headed by IAS officers who come and go at short intervals. They are not scholars and have little interest in the academic and intellectual work of the department under them. It is time the government of India and the State government recruited scholars of international repute by invitation to head the ASI and the State Archaeology Department for a fixed tenure.
Personally, I think it is also tragic that the original estampages of thousands of inscriptions from Tamil Nadu are stored in the Epigraphy Branch of the ASI in Mysore, out of reach for researchers in the State. Originally, the office of the Government Epigraphist was at Udhagamandalam. Since the vast majority of inscriptions are in Tamil and in Tamil Nadu, the Epigraphy Branch of the ASI should have remained in Tamil Nadu. The State government did nothing to retain the office in Tamil Nadu. We can at least think of digitising the ink impressions available in Mysore and store them in Chennai, Tiruchi and Madurai for easy access to local scholars. There is very little coordination between the Archaeology Department and the universities, especially in Tamil Nadu. A recent, glaring example is that the ASI, while excavating at Adichanallur, claimed to have discovered a Tamil-Brahmi pottery inscription of antiquity. But no epigraphist from Tamil Nadu outside the Archaeology Department was allowed access to it. I am now told that the inscription never existed or has disappeared. There is no other recorded instance of Tamil-Brahmi inscription being found but erased owing to exposure to atmosphere if that indeed is the case.
What steps should be taken to protect the Tamil-Brahmi sites?
Just as sand quarrying is destroying the water wealth, granite quarrying is destroying the cultural wealth of Tamil Nadu. I am not hopeful, considering the money involved, that anything can be done to stop the destruction in either case in the near future. To tell you the truth, I don’t believe anything will be done.
The small Jaina community in Tamil Nadu is unhappy that the ancient Jaina cave inscriptions are being destroyed but they are powerless to stop it as the number of Jainas in the State is so small that they do not command enough votes… You have pricked my conscience.
http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2614/stories/20090717261407000.htm
courtesy  frontline






MADURAI JAIN HERITAG CENTRE, MADURAI, TAMILNADU, PROLOGUE
Madurai is so important and sacred for Jains from 300 century BCE to 13 CE as it has hills with Jaina Sculpture, caves, stone beds of Munis. Inscriptions in not less than 30 caves, about 200 Stone beds, 60 Inscriptions, 84 Tamil Brahmi Inscriptions, 100 Sculptures of Thirthankaras. There are Rock paintings in and around Madurai which have almost faded in many places.
Jain monks preferred hard rock to carve their abodes and now granite quarries are located near the abodes to exploit the minerals. In the process, the historical abodes are getting completely eroded. Intensive unauthorized quarries in and around Keelavalavu, Keelakuilkudi, Arittapatti villages are going on which resulted in caving in of Jain beds.

“MADURAI JAIN HERITAGE CENTRE (MJHC)” has been formed and registered in Madurai itself with sincere devoted persons who are already doing commendable service for the preservation of old Jaina monuments of Madurai hills.
In order to safeguard the hills from quarries and vandalism.
To promote pilgrimage tours, heritage tours to these hills.
To create awareness among the local people regarding importance of the heritage Jain centres.
To provide lodging & boarding facilities to the visitors and devotees coming from all over India and Abroad.

To arrange literary meetings, conferences, highlighting Jains contributions to the people, Tamil literature and culture.
To arrange festivals in all the hills once in a year.

MJHC purchased about two ground of land in a place opposite Vellaichamy Nadar College near Madurai Kamaraj University about 13 kms, away from Madurai town, nearer to Samana Malai (Jaina Hill) and building of 1200 sq.ft. of area constructed.  Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Statue also installed about a year back at a total cost of about Rs.45 Laksh, collected from the people as Donation and Rs.4 Lakhs as Loan, which needs to be returned. It is functioning at Plot No.142, 4th Street, Maxworth Nagar (Near SBO School) Mela Kuyilkudi Road, Nagamalai Pudukottai, Madurai (Contact Cell No. 9486810858, Email – jainheritage@gmail.com).

Summing up it would be a wonder if the Jain Vestiges which survived for more than two thousand years remains as such for another century in the period of granite gust. There are programs to construct a prayer hall in and around Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Statue for about 2050 sq.ft. at a cost of Rs.25 Lakhs immediately and construction of first floor for about 1250 sq.ft. at a cost of Rs.15 Lakhs at later date, over the present building for the use as conference hall at MJHC for which donations from public are invited, which if the Jain people take note of this will be a rich tribute that they will be paying to the disciples of MAHAVIRA and to maintain the magnificence that was MADURAIO 2000 years ago.
Contact:
Sri.A.Chinna Durai Jain – President
9884266715 – engineer.acdurai@gmail.com
Sri.  Anantharaj Jain – Secretary
9486810858
Sri. A.P. Aravazhi Jain – Trustee
9442310894 – aparavazhi@gmail.com
Sri. S.Thanya Kumar Jain – Trustee
9444130764 – thanyakumar@gmail.com
Sri.  B.Santhanam Jain – Treasurer

9843064265 – bagawathysanthanam@yahoo.com

                            தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வெட்டுகள் பெரும்பாலனவை சமணம் தொடர்பானவை. 
(Ref: page no 1 of தமிழ் பிராமி கல்வெட்டுகள் Shri. T.S.Shridhar (I.A.S) Spl.Commissionor TN-State ASI Chennai) published on 2006-- Acknowledgement with thanks Tamil nadu State Archaeological Department –Chennai-600008..
Thanks to Mr. Vinod Rajan (Virtual Vinodh.com)  Scotland who provide Adhinatha Tamil Brahmi Font to convert Tamil font into Brahmi font.